What are the 3 main components of PID controllers?

The three main components of a PID (Proportional, Integral, Derivative) controller are:

  • Proportional (P) component: Adjusts the output proportionally to the error, where the error is the difference between the setpoint and the process variable. It addresses the current error.
  • Integral (I) component: Accumulates past errors and integrates them over time to eliminate residual steady-state errors. It addresses the accumulation of past errors.
  • Derivative (D) component: Predicts future errors by calculating the rate of change of the process error. It addresses potential future trends in the error.
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